How do the weapons used determine what's next for Mosul?

After years of occupation by the so-called Islamic State (Da’esh) the city of Mosul, Iraq is on the verge of being liberated. The urban battle there has raged for almost nine months leaving a devastating humanitarian disaster in its wake. The weapons which were used during this battle have a direct impact on what comes next for the city and its inhabitants.

Although the Iraqi Prime Minister has declared victory and the city liberated, the humanitarian suffering will continue for years or more likely decades due to the indiscriminate and inhumane weapons used.[1]

The weapons used and their impact

For a number of years, civil society under the International Network on Explosive Weapons and a number of states have been concerned about the use of explosive weapons with wide-area effects in populated areas. During the battle for Mosul, INEW expressed great concern about the weapons being used and encouraged all actors to cease using explosive weapons with wide area effects in the densely populated city. Despite these calls for restraint, populated areas of Mosul and especially west Mosul have seen the use of airdropped munitions, unguided bombs, multiple launch rocket systems, mortars, other shelling, and improvised explosive devices including car bombs for months.

The use of explosive weapons with wide-area effects in a densely populated city results in high levels of civilian casualties. Mosul has seen this assertion to be true over the past nine months. Airwars, a civil society monitoring organization, estimated that as of July 1, 2017 between 900 and 1,200 civilians were killed by Coalition airstrikes or artillery in Mosul. That number does not include civilians killed when there was uncertainty about the user of the explosive weapon (International Coalition, Iraqi security forces or Da’esh) or casualty reports which could not be verified. The casualty toll from Da’esh’s use of explosive weapons and improvised explosive devices is expected to be quite high. The United Nations reports that in a three day period in March 2017, at least 95 civilians were killed in four neighbourhoods of western Mosul alone by Da’esh explosive weapons and snipers.

These numbers of civilians killed only show a small glimpse of the suffering caused by the explosive weapons with wide area effects used in Mosul. For each person killed, many more have been injured. The ICRC reported that their surgical team at Mosul General Hospital has received over 650 cases, many of them children. Hospitals in the area have been overwhelmed with the injured during the battle.

Those who are injured may need ongoing care to deal with their injuries and any resulting impairments.  Rehabilitative services, prosthetics, mobility aids and psychological support will all be needed to ensure that those injured can participate in society fully.

Beyond immediate casualties the use of explosive weapons with wide area effects in Mosul has resulted in extensive destruction of key infrastructure, housing and other buildings greatly compounding the ongoing humanitarian suffering.

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) reports that water treatment plants and pumping stations in both eastern and western Mosul were damaged. Of the damaged facilities, nine are under rehabilitation in July 2017, however, ongoing insecurity and a lack of funding has inhibited rehabilitation. Water is currently being trucked into Mosul. Related to the damage done to the water supply is the destruction of sanitation infrastructure. In addition, the electrical grid has been seriously disrupted, waste disposal operations have been halted for months on end and schools, medical facilities and religious or cultural buildings were destroyed. All of these results of explosive weapons use have humanitarian consequences now and will make it much harder and costlier to rebuild a thriving city in the future.

UNOCHA reported that out of west Mosul’s 54 residential neighbourhoods, 38 are heavily to moderately damaged. The damage and fighting combined with the draconian rule of Da’esh has resulted in over half a million people being displaced from in and around Mosul. Studies conducted in similar situations around the region have shown that the use of explosive weapons in populated areas is a key driver of displacement and the ICRC gathered a number of reports from displaced persons from Mosul who stated they fled the city due to explosive weapons use. For many, return will be impossible until rubble has been cleared and reconstruction has been begun.

Not every explosive weapon used in the battle for Mosul functioned properly, especially considering the number of homemade mortars. These explosive remnants of war will need to be cleared before reconstruction and return of displaced persons can begin in earnest.

In addition to the explosive remnants of war, Da’esh has been using improvised landmines, booby traps and other victim activated weapons extensively to continue killing after they have retreated. In one village near Mosul, improvised mines have already killed ten and injured five. High levels of contamination are being reported across the region in areas liberated from Da’esh and Mosul is no exception. The improvised mines left by Da’esh aim to prevent civilian return to Mosul and surrounding villages.

Mines are being found surrounding essential infrastructure, schools and other public buildings further impeding reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts. Booby traps contaminate residential homes waiting in mattresses, kitchen sinks, doorways and other ordinary items for the residents to return. The contamination will take years to clear. Mines Advisory Group calls the situation in areas liberated from Da’esh a new landmine emergency, noting that the improvised mines created by Da’esh are often sensitive enough to be triggered by a child but packed with enough explosive to destroy a tank.

What’s next?


There is little doubt that significant work needs to be done to rebuild Mosul after the nine months of conflict and years of Da’esh rule. Iraqi officials estimate that recovery and complete reconstruction will cost billions of dollars.

The weapons used during the conflict in many ways dictate the next steps towards reconstruction. Of prime importance is rehabilitating water and sanitation facilities as well as the electrical grid. In terms of saving lives and limbs, the clearance of mines and ERW must be a priority. The presences of ERW and improvised mines will hamper reconstruction by making clearing rubble and navigating the city a very risky endeavor. Humanitarian demining organizations are on the ground outside the city and armed forces explosive ordnance disposal teams are also working hard to remove the mines and ERW. However, this is a task that will take many months or years. Without clearance, travel, shopping, attending school and other aspects of everyday activities will be life-threatening. Once this work is done, the city and surrounding countryside can return to a thriving community.

In the meantime, risk education will be needed to protect civilians still living in Mosul and those who may return. Risk education can show residents what common dangerous objects look like and warning signs will remind citizens to be on the alert. For communities that have never been contaminated with mines and ERW before risk education is crucially important. Such activities are already underway and will need to be expanded to populations who were recently liberated from Da’esh.

The destruction of buildings through explosive weapons use has resulted in significant amounts of rubble littering neighbourhoods across Mosul which will need to be cleared before reconstruction can begin in earnest. The rubble poses a threat to the health of residents as well as an impediment to reconstruction. Rubble may contain harmful chemicals while the long term inhalation of dust may impact breathing; these impacts will be magnified if industrial areas and infrastructure was targeted. Environmental remediation will have to be included in the recovery plans to ensure that the city remains a healthy place to live.

At the moment, reports indicate that not only is there significant amounts of rubble in West Mosul, but that the bodies of those killed in the bombing and shelling are still buried under the rubble. Collection of human remains and proper burial is needed to be able to start clearing the rubble and to allow family members and friends to grieve.

Once the deceased have been properly cared for and the rubble cleared, basic infrastructure will need to be repaired or rebuilt. Displaced persons will need to have access to water, sanitation and electricity prior to return. The destruction of Mosul is extensive as discussed above. Water, sanitation and electricity infrastructure have been severely damaged, schools and hospitals have been destroyed and roads are clogged with rubble. The rehabilitation of destroyed infrastructure has already begun but the process will be long. Standing buildings will need to be assessed for structural safety, as well as, for improvised mines, booby traps and other ERW. Partially destroyed buildings will need to be repaired following assessments. Destroyed buildings will need to have the rubble cleared away and the buildings rebuilt. In addition to essential infrastructure, houses, schools, hospitals, mosques, churches and markets will need to be rebuilt. Entire neighbourhoods have been destroyed and will need extensive reconstruction to make them thriving communities again. This will be a long and costly process, but the city will need to be rebuilt in order for the citizens to be able to return and begin to re-establish their lives.

Beyond Rebuilding

For those who lived through the conflict, re-establishing their lives will require more than just rebuilding the city and its infrastructure. As mentioned above, ensuring proper support and services to those injured by explosive weapons will be a major undertaking for the foreseeable future. Medical care, rehabilitation, mobility aids, assistance with social and economic reintegration and psychosocial support will all be needed. To provide services to the large number of injured, there will need to be a large increase in the availability of age and gender sensitive services. Under the Ottawa Treaty banning landmines and the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Iraq has an obligation to provide assistance to victims of those weapons. The principle of non-discrimination in victim assistance under those two treaties would likewise require the provision of services to citizens with similar needs regardless of the cause of those injuries. Those who were not injured but have lived under the bombing and shelling for months may require mental health care as well.

One consideration that is not entirely unique to the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, but is greatly exacerbated by their use is the fate of unaccompanied children. Families get separated in armed conflict. The Red Cross/Red Crescent and other organizations have worked to reunite families in conflicts for decades. More than just getting lost in the chaos of fleeing conflict, UNICEF reports that a number of medical facilities have received injured or traumatized children who are alone and remain unclaimed. Often they are the sole survivor of a bombing or airstrike that destroyed their family’s home. The explosive weapons used in Mosul would frequently collapse an entire home or building on those inside, especially in the Old City, killing large numbers of the same family. This family destruction was intensified by the use of civilians as human shields by Da’esh which forced extended families to shelter together.  Some of these unaccompanied children may be in the care of  UNICEF and other humanitarian organizations but that is a temporary solution. These children will need to be reunited with surviving extended family or placed in safe and loving foster or adoptive homes to give them the best possible chance to recover from this trauma and become productive members of society.

All of this reconstruction work requires strong social cohesion and civil society. Years of displacement or occupation coupled with the long battle have weakened social ties as is evident by the extra-judicial retribution currently going on in Mosul. If the goal is to rebuild the city and defeat Da’esh work needs to be done on countering the damage done to the culture of the city, as well as, the buildings and people. Citizens are beginning this work already by bringing back music and cultural activities and that work should be supported. Civil society organizations should also be supported especially networks and peer support groups for survivors of explosive weapons use. We know from work on landmines and cluster munitions that peer support is key to adapting to new impairments caused by weapons injuries in terms of physical, psychological and economic recovery. It will also be crucially important to ensure that women and marginalized communities have a seat at the table while decisions are made about rebuilding the city. Iraqi officials and others must make sure these populations are included in the reconstruction process. In addition to supporting the physical rebuilding of the city, donors such as Canada should be supporting grassroots organizations to build their capacity to provide services in Mosul and to reconstruct society.


Moslawis experienced years of occupation by an inhumane terrorist organization and then suffered immensely during the battle to liberate the city from Da’esh. Much of this suffering was caused by the tactics used during the battle and the behavior of actors in the conflict, but the weapons used will determine what comes next for the city. The city cannot rebuild without dealing with the legacy of the weapons used and the ways in which the weapons have harmed and continue to harm the civilian population.

[1] This article deals solely with the humanitarian harm caused by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas. There are a number of reports of humanitarian harm and extra-judicial killings taking place in areas liberated from Da’esh. These reports are concerning; they should be investigated thoroughly and perpetrators brought to justice.


Mines Action Canada Welcomes the Adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons

Mines Action Canada (MAC) warmly welcomes the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons by UN Member States at the United Nations on July 7, 2017. Over 120 states participated in the negotiations.

20170707_104311_resized.jpgThe process to develop the treaty was motivated by the catastrophic humanitarian impacts that would result of any use or detonation of a nuclear weapon. This new treaty is grounded in the humanitarian approach to disarmament pioneered by the Ottawa Process banning landmines. It makes nuclear weapons illegal as well as immoral.

MAC has been working on indiscriminate and inhumane weapons for over two decades so we are very pleased to see nuclear weapons prohibited like all other weapons of mass destruction. MAC staff were involved in the negotiations of this treaty to share lessons learned from the Ottawa Treaty banning landmines and the Convention on Cluster Munitions. These lessons were translated into the Article 6 provisions on Victim Assistance and Environmental Remediation which were significantly strengthened over the course of negotiations.

MAC is glad to see the groundbreaking recognition of the disproportionate impact of nuclear weapons activities on indigenous peoples found in the Preamble of the Treaty. This recognition is something MAC strongly advocated for in cooperation with a number of civil society and indigenous organizations. The treaty also highlights the impact of nuclear weapons on women and girls. MAC is pleased to see the commitment to supporting and strengthening the effective participation of women in nuclear disarmament and reference to the importance of peace and disarmament education in the Treaty.

Canadian civil society and parliamentarians participated in the negotiations and contributed to the development of this treaty as a strong normative instrument. “The Government of Canada did not attend the negotiations but Canadian civil society has ensured that the Treaty reflects Canadian values such as humanity, respect for the environment, peace, justice and security,” said Erin Hunt, Program Coordinator of Mines Action Canada.

Mines Action Canada strongly encourages Canada to sign the treaty when it opens for signature in September 2017 in order to continue our strong tradition of putting humanitarian concerns at the center of disarmament policy which started with the prohibition on blinding lasers, the Ottawa Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

(Moment of adoption - photo by Clare Conboy, ICAN)


MAC staff's video message on victim assistance in nuclear ban treaty



Big win for our colleagues in Trinidad and Tobago

For the past few years, MAC has partnered with the University of Ottawa to send students to Trinidad and Tobago for internships with our colleagues the Women's Institute for Alternative Development (WINAD). In addition to supporting WINAD's work on the Convention on Cluster Munitions and other humanitarian disarmament issues, the students helped with a campaign to end child marriage.

Our Young Professionals (as we call our interns) were there when WINAD first raised the issue with the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago while others continued to work on the campaign after their internship was finished. You can read WINAD's arguments for raising the age of marriage to 18 in Trinidad and Tobago here

Recently those Young Professionals saw their work pay off. Within a year of launching a new campaign in which WINAD coordinated the work of 26 NGOs, new legislation was passed and assented to making the minimum age of marriage 18.

We are very pleased our Young Professionals were able to contribute to such important work and continue to be grateful that we are able to work with such committed and effective campaigners in Trinidad and Tobago and around the world.  




MAC Statement on the Nuclear Ban Treaty

Mines Action Canada's Statement to the Nuclear Ban Treaty Negotiations Delivered by Erin Hunt, Program Coordinator

Thank you madam President. We are encouraged by the draft text’s inclusion of positive obligations and by the depth of debate on this topic.
With regards to assistance to affected individuals it is important that this treaty furthers existing norms and obligations and does not undermine them. There is no reason that victims of nuclear weapons use or testing should have fewer rights or less access to services than victims of other indiscriminate weapons. For that reason, we support Switzerland’s proposal about adding guidance for the implementation of victim assistance to the article.
It is important to note that assistance to victims is seen as the responsibility of all states not just those in “a position to do so” so we support removing that qualifier from Article 6(1) as suggested by many states.
Remember this international legal agreement does not create any new victims – states have existing obligations to those citizens. It does though formalize the need and right for international assistance and experience with other treaties has shown that victim assistance provisions can help states better organize their activities to be more effective and efficient. By requiring data collection, as well as national plans and policies, victim assistance provisions facilitate requests for assistance internationally and ensure that services are provided effectively allowing states to meet their existing obligations to their citizens.
Turning now to Article 6(2). While the draft treaty text references environmental remediation, it merely establishes a right to seek and receive assistance. The language should be amended to make clear that states parties have an obligation to take necessary and appropriate measures to ensure remediation of contaminated areas under their jurisdiction or control.
To promote the effective implementation of this obligation, the treaty should also require specific remediation measures, such as assessment and identification of contaminated areas, removal or containment of contaminated materials, and risk reduction education. These proposed amendments to draft Article 6 draw heavily from precedent in past disarmament treaties.
Primary responsibility for environmental remediation, like victim assistance, should rest with affected states, which are best situated to coordinate implementation in their sovereign territory. But international assistance would be available and Article 6 could also include language strongly encouraging states that have used and tested nuclear weapons to provide remediation assistance to affected states.
A separate article requiring all states parties to provide international cooperation and assistance would help affected states parties meet their victim assistance and environmental remediation obligations and ensure they do not bear an undue burden. None of these proposed changes to the draft treaty text would preclude affected states from seeking redress through peaceful means from states that have used or tested nuclear weapons.
Through the implementation of these strong provisions on positive obligations, the convention will contribute to the sustainable development goals and the realization of a number of other international agreements and goals. Strong provisions regarding positive obligations are the duty of all of humanity not just specific states.
There is nothing in these provisions, even amended as suggested, that prevents an affected state from seeking redress, through other peaceful means, from user and tester states. I encourage states to review NGO working papers 14, 24, 32 and 33. Thank you.


Applying Lessons Learned

Our humanitarian disarmament partners in the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) are currently working hard at the United Nations conference to negotiate a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination.

In a process inspired by the Ottawa Process banning landmines, states with support from civil society and international organizations are negotiating a treaty to prohibit nuclear weapons from 15 June to 7 July 2017.  

After 20 years of work on the Ottawa Treaty and other efforts to address the humanitarian impact of indiscriminate weapons, we have learned a lot and have a lot of experience we are sharing with our colleagues. In that spirit Mines Action Canada has drafted three documents for states to review during their negotiations. 

First, we submitted a new Working Paper to the negotiating conference. Our paper on The Disproportionate Impact of Nuclear Weapons Detonations on Indigenous Communities is available on the United Nations website. It follows on some themes from our Working Paper submitted with ICAN to the March session of negotiations.

Second, we have a new Frequently Asked Questions document about victim assistance in the draft treaty text. This FAQ aims to help states and civil society ensure that the provisions regarding assistance to affected persons in the final treaty support existing norms around victim assistance. 

Third, we co-published a paper on sustainable development and the draft text of the treaty with the International Disarmament Institute at Pace University. The paper is also available in French. Our work has shown that indiscriminate weapons are lethal barriers to development.

MAC staff will be attending the negotiations and speaking at a briefing event on positive obligations in the treaty on Wednesday June 21, 2017 to further outline lessons learned from previous disarmament treaties. For more on the negotiations please visit ICAN's website at and follow the hashtag #nuclearban on social media.



Cluster Munition News

It’s been a busy few days in the global efforts to end the suffering caused by cluster munitions. We are thrilled that Madagascar ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions on May 20 becoming the 101st State Party. We look forward to working with Madagascar to achieve the aims of the treaty.

Today, the Cluster Munition Coalition and Dutch peace organization, PAX released the 2017 Worldwide Investments in Cluster Munitions: a shared responsibility report. This report outlines links between the financial community and producers of banned cluster munitions.

Canadians will be concerned to learn that there were still Canadian financial institutions listed on the Hall of Shame.  On a positive note, again this year one Canadian financial institution is listed on the Hall of Fame. Recent developments in Canada include the tabling of a private members bill in the Senate to clearly state that investment in cluster munition producers is prohibited in Canada. Mines Action Canada urges all Senators and Members of Parliament to ensure the investing in companies which make these banned weapons is prohibited in Canada.

The full press release is below. Take this opportunity to see if your financial institution invests in banned cluster bombs.

Billions $ invested in producers of globally banned cluster bombs

(Tokyo, 23 May 2017) – While 119 nations have joined the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions to rid the world of cluster munitions, in the past three years, 166 financial institutions invested US$31 billion in companies that produce cluster munitions. Investing in cluster munitions is morally unacceptable with devastating consequences when these weapons are used among civilians. Yet, financial institutions turn a blind eye and continue investing in companies that produce them. The Cluster Munition Coalition urges all financial institutions to stop investing in producers of cluster munitions.

According to the report ‘Worldwide Investments in Cluster Munitions: a shared responsibility’ published today by Cluster Munition Coalition member PAX (the Netherlands), the US$31 billion investment by 166 financial institutions went to six companies that produce cluster munitions. Of the six, two companies are located in China (China Aerospace Science and Industry and Norinco), two in South Korea (Hanwha and Poongsan) and two in the U.S. (Orbital ATK and Textron).

“Cluster bombs are banned for a clear reason, because they disproportionately harm civilians, as is the case with the ongoing use of cluster munitions by Syrian and Russian forces in Syria and by the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen. That is why no banks or financial institutions should put a penny in companies that produce these illegal and harmful weapons, and no company or country should produce cluster munitions,” said Firoz Alizada, Campaigns and Communications Manager at the Cluster Munition Coalition.  

“It is unacceptable to see an increase of US$3 billion investments in producers of cluster bombs in 2017 in comparison to 2016. Nonetheless, we are pleased that Textron, a major producer of cluster bombs in the US announced last year that it would cease the production of cluster munitions and that, by the end of 2017, the company will have no involvement in the production of these weapons,” said Maaike Beenes, co-author of the PAX report. “We will be following closely to see if Textron does indeed end all involvement with cluster munitions this year. We also call on all other producers to stop producing cluster bombs without further delay,” she added.

42 financial institutions in 11 countries have enacted policies ending all investments in cluster munition producers. Furthermore, 46 financial institutions in 14 countries have taken steps to prohibit investments in companies producing the weapons, however, they must fix loopholes in their policies to put an end to all investments in producers of cluster bombs.

The 166 financial institutions still investing in cluster munitions are in fourteen countries. The vast majority of the financial institutions (151) are from countries that have not joined the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Of these, 85 are from the United States, 30 from China and 27 from South Korea. However, 15 financial institutions that have invested in producers of cluster munitions are from countries that have joined the convention: Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The number of investors in these countries has decreased from 20 in 2016 to 15 in 2017. To fulfill their convention obligations, States Parties to the convention must take action to prohibit investments by all financial institutions.  

In strengthening the norm against cluster munitions, ten countries have enacted national legislation banning investments in cluster munitions. In addition, 28 countries have expressed the view that investments in the production of cluster munitions are prohibited. 


International Mine Action Day 2017

April 4th is International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action.  This year there were some very exciting events to mark the day.

We were very pleased to see Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Crystia Freeland, announce support for mine action in Sri Lanka and Ukraine. This announcement follows soon after an announcement of funding for clearance activities in Iraq. Each of these projects will save lives and limbs for years to come. 

Minister Freeland also attended a reception at Kensington Palace hosted by our colleagues Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and The HALO Trust. At the reception, Prince Harry delivered a keynote speech highlighting the progress made since his mother, Princess Diana, spoke out about the issue in 1997 and the importance of finishing the job. 

You can see Prince Harry's full speech in the video below or read it online.

Elsewhere around the world, the President of the Ottawa Treaty, Austria's Foreign Minister released an excellent statement to mark the day. In Tunis, the Canadian Embassy hosted a reception. The UN Mine Action Service in South Sudan held a photo exhibition. Our colleagues in Iraq held a large event (see photo below). Campaigners in Albania, Yemen, the United States and more met with their governments, held public events and raised funds. The Secretary General of the United Nations reminded the world that "Peace without mine action is incomplete peace" in a statement. That is a fitting reminder of why this day is so important. Without all the pillars of mine action (clearance, risk education, victim assistance, advocacy and stockpile destruction), conflicts will continue to claim lives and limbs long after the peace agreement is signed. 



Ending the suffering caused by nuclear weapons

This is a very exciting week for humanitarian disarmament. The United Nations Conference to Negotiate a Legally Binding Instrument to Prohibit Nuclear Weapons, Leading Towards their Total Elimination started on Monday March 27th

It is amazing to see history being made yet again. At MAC, we want to ensure that this new treaty builds on past humanitarian disarmament success.  With that goal in mind, we have released two new papers applying the lessons learned about victim rights and victim assistance in the Ottawa Treaty banning landmines and the Convention on Cluster Munitions to a treaty prohibiting nuclear weapons.

The Working Paper was submitted to the negotiating conference for consideration by all participating states. It will also be available on the United Nations website shortly.

We have also published a Frequently Asked Questions to help campaigners and others advocate for strong provisions on victim assistance in the treaty. 

We hope that these documents will be useful. For more on the negotiations please follow our friends the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons and the hashtag #nuclearban. 


Prohibiting Investment in Cluster Munitions

Mines Action Canada is pleased to see that Senator Salma Ataullahjan has tabled Bill S-235 an amendment to the Prohibiting Investments in Cluster Munitions Act which aims to amend the current legislation on cluster munitions. Canada has prohibited the production of cluster munitions, but this amendment will go one step further by prohibiting Canadian companies from investing in entities which produce these indiscriminate weapons. MAC welcomes this amendment as a necessary step towards humanitarian disarmament, post-conflict reconstruction, and the protection of civilians.

In her Second Reading speech Senator Ataullahjan effectively summarizes the importance of this amendment when she states, “To invest in companies that produce cluster munitions is to invest in the devastation and misery they cause… Canada has been a global leader against landmines. Let us also be a leader against the production and use of cluster munitions.” 

Debate on Bill S235 has been adjourned and should resume after the March break.  Keep an eye on our social media for more updates!


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